This Morning: Beauty Pageants and Self-Perception Issues/’Mirror Stage’ Theory

I came across this clip whilst watching This Morning several days ago, and found it very appropriate to to my current practice and research topics surrounding the beauty and fashion industries, and self-perception issues. I was struck by the fact that Sami Bushell, the mother in question, has been fake tanning her daughter since she was two-years-old in the name of beauty pageants. Sami noted that the only reason which this alone causes problems to the public, is that the term, ‘beauty’ is involved, and that if cheerleading or gymnastics were in question, as ‘sport’ going through such vanity-led processes are a ‘normal’ part of this experience. However, the argument being with this in particular is that Psychologists, believe that this from such an early age can have an on-going affect with ‘subjects’ more likely to develop Mental Health issues such as Body Dysmorphia and Eating Disorders surrounding their own issues with their bodies and self-perception as a rise of recognising early on that this is ‘how women should be’ because from the age of 3, girls are being judged and marked on this, even tho pageant goers may argue that the competitions are about ‘talent’, despite the name ‘beauty pageant’.
I found this resonant with Lacan and Freud’s understanding of the ‘Mirror Stage’, whereby between 6 to 18 months old, a child becomes self-aware of their reflection in a mirror, and becomes concious of such reflection, even though at this stage of their lives have very little mental or physical abilities which are possessed by adults. This shows that whilst even though a child can not control how they look, they become aware, and become aware of what they see is normal, relating back to the Beauty Pageant and Saami Bushell’s daughter as noted above. By applying fake tan and cosmetic products at an early-age, not only can this damage their skin and dermatology due to the formulations and chemicals for example which are used in such products, but could also can also affect their self-perception if this is what they become aware of seeing, and used to ‘looking’ like in their reflection. Lacan and Freud also relate this back to the ‘ego’, stating that “the ego is the subject rather than a subject” and one should be free as “I”, so go and make their own fate. I found this interesting in regards to the “ego” which as Freud notes can be built and discovered from an early age, allowing for issues with identity and belonging to subside alongside this as shown in the example above, whereby one loses their identity due to ego-defying tasks and competitions for instance. This is highlighted in the quote below.
“By contrast with the ego and the illusory sense of fictional selfhood it supports, the psychoanalytic subject of Lacanianism is an unconscious kinetic negativity defying capture by and within ego-level identificatory constructs.”
Furthermore, as well as thinking about the above theory in relation to the Beauty Pageant issue as noted above, I also found this theory and idea relative to the topic of previous employment and ethical issues as a designer, whereby I was asked to design cosmetic products for children from as young as 8 years old. During the presentation I discussed this and how a company could produce and design such products without considering the long-term impact on a child whom is using such vanity-led products from an early age. Some argue as in the video also, that children may want to copy the actions of their mothers, however, I personally feel that the same principal on the Mirror Stage resonates with this, regarding how from a young age with an ‘altered’ and unnatural appearance, one due to self-awareness at such a young age, may actually develop mental health and self-perception issues growing up, and feel that this should be considered more across the Fashion and Beauty industries to help alleviate some of these problems going forward. If children were brought up to love themselves for whom they are, and didn’t feel the name to be accepted within a certain group of society, for example dance groups or cheerleading groups, perhaps growing up they would continue in this vein and not be so swayed by the visuals the media puts out there and dictates at an early age how we should act like and look like.
Furthermore this also made me think again about the Beyonce Barbie Box Halloween costume as discussed in a previous blog post, and how in a way Beyonce is actively encouraging her daughter to grow up as herself and create her own identity based on her ego, as Lacan and Freud state in the Mirror Stage theory, however Sami Bushell is actively doing the opposite and whether realises or not is standardising and conforming her daughter to follow a set of guidelines and tick boxes on what is deemed ‘beautiful’ opposed to believing in that, and feeling that for oneself.
Johnston, A.. (2013). Jacques Lacan. Available: Last Accessed: 3rd November 2016.
This Morning. (2016). This Morning “I Fake Tan My 3 Year Old”.Available: Last accessed 3rd November 2016rd November 2016.
Lacan, A.. (1949). The Mirror Stage as the Formative Function of the I as revealed in Psychoanalytic Experience. Available: Last Accessed: 3rd November 2016. 

Post-MA Studio Spaces, Business Start-Up Funding, Teaching Opportunities and Freelancer Support Organisations

I have recently been thinking about and discussing Post-MA opportunities which follow on from my current practice. I have noted these options below.

I currently undertake freelance work on an International basis, and have recently stepped into a Lecturer position at Bradford College one day a week, delivering two modules on the BA(Hons) Fashion degree to Level 6 students. The modules are Professional Context, and Styling and Promotion. I have taken this on due to having relevant industry experience and also to gain some teaching experience which I could use going forward post-MA, to apply for Teaching courses or to apply for full-time positions with the view to completing a Teacher Training course. Therefore, whilst looking at Freelance opportunities post-MA, I also feel it is worthwhile looking into this as another option as I am really enjoying the current role and challenge, whilst being very rewarding.

In addition to this, I have also been in talks with Hattie Spowage, a PT MA student, in regards to sharing a studio space and running our own business alongside our personal practices in the future. I will discuss this idea in another post once we have drawn together a plan for our initial idea. This at the moment is simply an idea in talks, however we both feel is worth thinking about, considering and researching. Therefore I would also would like to consider that as an option looking into funding and shared studio spaces which we could utilise, and therefore learn from each other and grow our business plans and ideas, whilst being about to produce garments and corresponding branding collateral alongside each other. As noted, this at the moment is quite a new idea and is still in the early stages of discussion, with Hattie researching the production side and suppliers, and myself looking at Studio Spaces and Funding options.

When currently Freelancing, I have the option to work either from home, or from a private shared studio space which is ran by Gaz Battersby at The Calls, Leeds depending on the size and nature of the project. With this I can share a space with Web Designers and Developers, as well as Graphic Designers alike, learning from each other whilst being mentored by Gaz. I can work quite remotely with my practice, simply needing an internet connection and my laptop at the very least, and therefore will decide where I am working based on the size of the project, i.e. a small logo design would not require a day in a studio, whilst a web design project would benefit from this interdisciplinary contact, feedback and advice. However, due to balancing this around my MA studies, and teaching day, I am finding it difficult to find time each week to do so, however going forward as my practice and freelance client base grows I would like to work all the time from an ‘external’ studio space in a collaborative surrounding.

Therefore I have been researching into the noted options and have noted my findings below.

Studio Spaces

Shared with Hattie Spowage
We would require somewhere with large desk space for garment pattern cutting, a desk area with a MAC for digital design work, and room for a printer/storage.

– Industrial Units – cheap, readily available and large in regards of space and storage.
– ‘Office’ Spaces – office spaces can be cheap to rent depending on the square footage needed, and are readily available all over Leeds. Again this is beneficial due to space, however being a generic ‘office space’, as the same as Industrial Units for example, wouldn’t have any specific facilities related to our field of design. This is something which needs to be discussed and considered in more detail.
Duke Studios – a range of ‘full studio spaces’ to, co-working spaces and simply desk spaces are available, depending on our needs at the time this may be a good and viable option as there is also access to facilities such as Laser Cutters, and Digital Printers. This needs to be further discussed with Hattie regarding the range of options, prices and contract lengths. We have noted going forward we would like to visit Duke studios to see what the studio spaces in particular are like size wise, to see if this could accommodate our needs as a start-up business.
HEART – HEART Centre in Headingley provides creatives with studio spaces within a ‘creative hub’ acting as a centre for business enterprise, live performance, events and exhibitions. This could be a very good option as local for both of us, and I myself used to work with Zeppo Creative, alongside a previous employer, based at HEART of which always gave very good reviews. However, this space does not offer printing facilities, etc, however this could be sorted amongst Hattie and myself.
East St. Arts and Patrick Studios – A variety of studio spaces and design-led facilities are available with 24 hour access, and a pre-installed internet connection. Also offered are ‘temporary studio’ spaces which may be a viable option whilst testing out our business idea and shared working space idea initially to see how viable going forward this would be. Also included at East St. Arts and Patrick Studios are Professional Development sessions which I feel would be of great benefit to start-up business.
Lady Beck Studios – Lady Becky Studios are very appealing due to very reasonable prices for a private studio space, and also have facilities for creatives to use on-site, whilst also acting as an exhibition and event space. I feel it is important to work in a creative environment if possible, and believe this one in particular may definitely be worth visiting. They also have Short-Term studio spaces, which again is great for start-up businesses. Spaces are also available at sister-studio space Assembly House in Armley in a more open-plan collaborative manner, which I don’t feel are as suited to our needs as the spaces available at Lady Beck Studios, however may be appropriate for individual practice.

Individual Studio Spaces
The below have been discussed in more detail prior above.

– Duke Studios
– East St. Arts and Patrick Studios
– Lady Beck Studios/Assembly House
– Shared Studio Space at The Calls with Gaz Battersby

Business Funding/Start-Up Funding

The notes are in relation to the discussions currently talking place between Hattie and I.

  • Government Finance, Grants and Supports – a range of support is available depending on location, business type, needs, etc.
  • UKFT – The UK Fashion and Textile Association state that “they the UK voice and meeting place for suppliers of fashion & textiles providing: practical support, export advice, information exchange and a voice – to government – to retailers” providing funding schemes and opportunities in regards to also working and trading overseas, whilst offering support and advice.
  • Lamberts Yard – do not provide funding, but run 3-day events regarding start-up independent businesses in Fashion which would be very beneficial if this idea is to go forward.
  • LCA Business and Enterprise Days – again not funding, but workshops delivered regarding new business start-ups, which will be beneficial in many aspects such as learning and developing skills/business knowledge.
  • British Fashion Council – offer specific business support to fashion designers. This would be appropriate if working with Hattie in form of collaboration and business partnership as it is important for to to be aware of our business options as a whole.
  • Fashion Angel – a company giving fashion business loans, mentoring schemes and support services to new start-up companies in the fashion industry, which I feel for myself and Hattie is a great option should we not be able to source funding.
  • Other funding options would be in the way of Kickstarter schemes for example, however this may take much longer to acquire the relevant funds which we would need to start a business. However, again this is not a proven way of working and could either work or fail depending on who sees it and how much money is donated, opposed to a funding scheme or loan which is clear from the offset in regards to total sums. This would all be discussed in much more detail together should we form a business plan for this idea.

Freelance Support and Organisations

Some of these organisations I have already discussed in relation to my current practice on a previous post, however are also relevant to freelancing.

  • D&AD, YCN – Competition boards and awarding bodies standardising and promoting fair practice amongst the Graphic Design industries. My work has previously been shown at the D&AD New Blood awards in 2015 which led on to job offers from the likes of Deliveroo and internships with the like of Glamour magazine. Therefore, feel again going forward participating in these competitions and promoting myself via their open submissions etc, whilst ensuring fair practice will benefit my practice and act as a method of support whilst freelancing when needed. Both also keep blog posts/articles/galleries on new designers, topics, trends, technologies and innovations to ensure designers are up to date with the newest advances relevant to their practice.
  • IPSE: Self-employed and Freelancer Association – Provides personal business support for members throughout all career stages. Also helps with legal protection and support if ever needed.

    “Welcome to IPSE – the membership body supporting contractors, independent professionals and freelancers, enabling them to succeed in business.

    IPSE membership entitles you to a myriad of direct benefits which will defend and protect your business and also gives you access to dozens of member-only offers, many of which can save you hundreds of pounds a year. At IPSE we never forget that you have to run your business as efficiently as possible, so we’ve developed a range of services and partnerships to make sure that you get the most from your membership.”

  • Chartered Society of Designers – “Chartered Society of Designersthe internationally recognised body for the design profession, providing support and guidance for designers at every stage of their career ‘from learning to earning™'” further accrediting courses are available to become a Charted Designer in my field, being protected by and abiding by their codes of conduct and policies. Furthermore, the website itself boasts a knowledge bank of support in regards to self-branding and promotion, to publications and online seminars.
  • Networking Groups, Nationally and Internationally – Debut Magazine, Magma and Laurence King Events, Creative Networks, Penguin Posse – these are groups which I have found through freelance work and contractual clients in the past, whilst also noting events which I have been to before. In addition I would like to attend other events such as the designer networking sessions at LSx Cafe in Leeds for example which happens one Tuesday a month. I feel as well as pushing me out of my comfort zone, will also allow to open up new opportunities, meet new people and potential new clients.
  • Recruitment Agencies specialising in Freelance work – i.e. The Book and Orchard which I am signed up with currently. Both are Leeds/Manchester based agencies.
  • Self-promotion – I have discussed this in more detail on a previous post, however the following I believe will be key to taking my freelance work further – updated CV, portfolio and website, along with updated promotional and branding collateral. I also plan on using websites such as Bechance as I already do which is key to gaining work for me currently, as well as using social media such as a Professional branded Instagram account and a Business Facebook Account for my Graphic Design and Digital Illustration work.


I have been discussing with my supervisor Anne-Marie, and researching independently into different options and have found that some institutions require a teaching qualification, whilst others simply require the MA I am working towards. Others however require a PHD, or to be actively working towards one, and therefore would need to research individual institutions and criteria as needed should I wish to apply for such full-time positions in HE.

Furthermore, I have also come across a course at Manchester Metropolitan University, as guided by Anne-Marie, which is a PGCLTHE Qualification. I feel that this may give me more confidence in teaching and the planning requirements which also fall in line with the responsibilities of teaching, whilst also feel a course would be beneficial in regards to opening up more doors for teaching, and also informing and educating myself in the professional teaching practice. More information on this course can be found here.

“The Postgraduate Certificate in Learning and Teaching in Higher Education Practice (PGCLTHE) provides a nationally recognised qualification for teaching and academic practice in Higher Education. The course is accredited within the MMU Professional Standards Framework and therefore meets the requirements of the UK Professional Standards Framework for Fellow status. Successful completion of the PGCLTHE, incorporates recognition as Fellow of the HEA.”

Recent Relevant Contractual Projects

I wanted to include reference to several of the freelance projects I have carried out recently with regards to contractual clients, in relation to how the advances in technology used, recognition or idea is associative and relative to my current practice and on-going development in regards to skills, and also in regards to career and positioning myself where I want to be post-MA in regards to a ‘job’ and also in respect to my stance, beliefs and ethics as a designer working in the Fashion and Beauty Industries.

I have not included visuals as it is agreed with clients in agreements that work shall not be shared outside of a portfolio, until the ‘products’ or ‘artworks’ have launched and live globally, however can be discussed.

Milk and Honey, a women’s lifestyle blog with a usp of empowering women in regards to beauty, body image, spirituality, race and self-confidence. In regards to this project in particular I am so proud to of worked on a project with a team of women whom all stand for the same principals, ethics and beliefs in regards to being who you are, and feeling powerful, beautiful and confident in doing so. I have been responsible for the new web design of the blog, and now shop also. This particular blog is formed of content writers, videographers, artists, designers and photographers for example based across the globe from LA to London allowing for International collaboration also which I feel really adds to the diversity and realness of this project. The new design for the website is currently in web development in the US and will be live soon, however the current blog has been linked above for reference.

I am planning on meeting up with my contact in January in London to carry out an interview in regards to where the idea of setting up this blog came from and how she feels it has benefited women in regards to alleviating the pressures of body image and self-perception issues, through using ‘real’ women as its subjects, models and content creators/developers. I have planned to do this in January in line with other interviews lined up with an International Supermodel as noted in a previous post. This ensures for efficient planning and time management, whilst allowing for time between now and then to finish up the project, gage a response on the new design and art direction, and construct a relevant range of interview questions in advance.

Doko by The Curious Collective, is an app which allows for the digital creation of zines using UI and UX technologies. I was quote new to this world when starting on this last year, and have seen today an article written by Adobe regarding such work and the designs produced. I am responsible for producing layouts using Adobe XD, which are then developed in Barcelona and Taipei to function as desired in the app itself. I have been working alongside the Director, Brandon, whom introduced me to Adobe XD a few months ago now, after initially starting to design layouts in Adobe Illustrator. Through problem solving and liaising with the developers, as well as trailing new software, Adobe XD was chosen as the desired platform, utilising UI and UX design within a specific piece of software which allows for the design and prototyping of application designs. I found this new technology really interesting and have developed themes for the app including an Editorial Fashion Zine Layout. The layouts allow for the user to change the background colours, border colours, fonts, images, headers, body copy and further graphic elements for example. Many of these have been suggestions such as alternate fonts to add depth and variety to the zines, whilst keeping true to the pitched ‘theme’ of the design adding to the aesthetic and tone. Over the past few months working closely with DOKO it has become apparent how social media has allowed us to share what we desire, but not in a very creative way – yes we can curate sleek Instagram galleries and portfolios – but this allows us to create our own publications, paginate them and share them in the same way as social media acts now. This app allows for followers and profiles to be created adding masses of user-interaction and personalisation with every theme being unique if desired by the end-user with thought and experimentation.

Researching technological advances in the Fashion and Beauty industries allowed me to focus on app design regarding manipulating images and using filters for example to enhance our looks, where as I did not look so much at the editorial side such as digital magazines and apps such as this, which allows us to create and share our own using new technologies.

The Fashion industry going forward in particular is becoming more digital and I believe that in 10 or so years, magazines themselves in publication format will be hard to find. Therefore, with print becoming more obsolete and user-interaction and digital engagement becoming more popular and more used by brands, and clients alike, I feel this project has been a good learning curve and experience.

Furthermore, Adobe have interviewed Brandon on the process of creating the app, DOKO, which can be found here. This alone I feel shows how innovative this concept is and I am very proud to be a big part of the design of what I believe will be, the start of a range of similar apps over time.


DOKO, The Curious Collective. (2015). Available: Last Accessed: 1st November 2016.
Kushions, J. (2016). Meet the Designer: Brandon Wu. Available: Last Accessed: 1st November 2016.
It’s Milk and Honey. (2016). Available: Last accessed 1st November 2016.

Instagram Post ‘Idea Bank’

This is working towards objective 4.A.

In regards to the Instagram post brief which I have currently been working on alongside the Poster/Zine brief, I have decided to post these ideas on my blog to showcase a bank of ideas which I have not had time to execute visually. I have decided to put these posts on hold for the time being whilst working on the Barbie Box brief and the Social Media Wellbeing Campaign brief initially. I feel with only 6 or so weeks left of this semester, I need to move on and experiment with different ideas, techniques and processes.

I have noted these below in case I do pick this brief back up again, during this semester or even in semester 2 depending on the context and chosen project to work on at the time. Therefore, the Instagram insights and analysis will now also be drawing to a close until if and when this project resumes in the same regard as it was. Going forward I will use Instagram to share my work Internationally as created , and to log my development. I will do this in order to still engage with the active community I am targeting for my research, whilst also promoting myself, my ideas and work, and furthermore still gaining feedback and insights on what work and concepts are received well, which I feel is a good and constructive form of criticism.

I found inspiration for many of these posts to date via research, thought, idea, conversation, products seen in shops whilst out, articles online etc, and have been noted whilst out and about in the notes section of my phone to ensure these ideas are captured.

I have really enjoyed working on the Instagram posts and feel as though I would of liked to worked on more of a variety encompassing more of the ideas and theories discussed to date, however all of the projects began to merge and therefore took a different direction, therefore whilst I would like to revisit this time permitting in the future.




Barbie Doll Project: Beyonce & Jay Z “Black Barbie – Collectors Edition” Halloween Costumes

I have decided in the past few days to draw to a close the Instagram Post/Poster brief which has developed into a further range of promotional items surrounding the “what’s my name again?” concept as previously discussed, to begin working on the Barbie Doll brief and Social Media Wellbeing Campaign which I feel I need to begin researching and experimenting with.

This morning, upon browsing Instagram, came across this post by Beyonce, posted 15 hours early, just in time for Halloween Celebrations in the US. Upon reflection, I don’t know how it made me feel that Beyonce had beaten me to creating my life-size Barbie Doll boxes which I had intended to produce. In one way I was glad that she is in-tune enough with current issues regarding the ‘standards of beauty’ and the issues regarding racism and ‘”black beauty” as discussed rawly in Solange Knowles’, Beyonces’ sisters new album. However, on the other hand, my idea is different in that my boxes and models would reflect the contrast between ‘ideal’ and ‘real’ women, showing this through different forms of branding, and I had also envisioned the boxes to be floor length. In addition to these comments though, I do feel that Beyonce and Jay Z using this ‘costume’ to symbolise a message of diversity, beauty across all races, the ‘ideal’ beauty and the idea of the ‘perfect iconic’ couple as often seen blasted in today’s media.

I feel that Beyonce and Jay Z introducing this idea in this way highlights that my idea is a good and worthy idea of pursuing further, with this post in particular gaining 2.5m likes, therefore this alone hopefully will help hit home about these relevant and topical issues which echo current societal ideals and norms.

The production itself resonated with the idea of satire and parody also which I have been using throughout my experimental work so date, mocking the ideas noted above regarding beauty and standardisation. This visual made me think about the issues and points discussed in Mary F. Rogers, “Barbie Culture” in regards to the commercial rise of icons, and Naomi Wolfs, “Beauty Myth” in regards to this particular quote, which I felt resonated with this image and the secondary image which Beyonce is trying to portray to her daughter:

“A Mother who radiates self-love and self-acceptance actually VACCINATES her daughter against low self-esteem. ”

I found this quote taken from ‘The Beauty Myth’ to be extremely powerful which this image in particular showcasing this explicitly through the concept carried out, and the use of her daughter looking up in admiration of those who LOVE themselves, and accept their bodies and appearance, opposed to those who manipulate and change their looks and identities to fit in with societal and cultural trends, norms and ideas. This also embeds the idea of “being black is beauty” and equality for her daughter at a young age, instilling her with good morals, beliefs and most importantly, self-confidence, self-love and self-awarity.

Furthermore, I feel this has become extremely relevant to a more recent blog post I have compiled focusing on Beauty Pageants for example, which I have discussed an interview on This Morning with a Mother, Sami Bushnell, whom fake tans her 3 year old daughter. I feel this is the opposite to what Beyonce is doing – one mother is encouraging ones self-awareness, whilst another is crushing it and infiltrating it as how to change to ‘be the most beautiful’ and claim the title. In a world where this is happening more and more, I think Beyonce targeting the ideas of Beauty Ideals and Standards, Identities and Self-awareness in a positive and proactive manner, and with my project hope to continue in this same vein.



Image Source


  • Satire
  • Ideal
  • Diversity
  • Beauty in all races and ethnicities
  • Mocking the ‘ideal’ Barbie and Ken image
  • Mocking beauty standards and ideals

Wolf, N. (1990). Quote. Available: Last Accessed: 1st November 2016.
Beyonce. (2016). Instagram Post. Available: Last accessed 1st November 2016.

Time Planning and Project Management

Initially at the start of the year, I had planned on using a GANTT chart to allocate my time and work around my project planning. However due to changes in my work circumstances to allow for more time for the full time MA course, this plan has changed slightly. I also found this hard to work by and follow as I found as my initial 2 projects developed this plan was disregarded as a formal structure.

I had since noted I had swapped to lists deciding autonomously the flow of the projects, whilst planning research based projects more stringently, and wanted to reiterate how I have been planning my time recently. I feel even though I have been writing weekly lists as shown below, and then daily lists allowing for a balance of practical, research and theoretical work to be carried out, I have gone over schedule on the initial projects and have now therefore had to reign this in and draw these projects to a close whilst moving forward.

I feel that by writing lists it has allowed me to be more relaxed in regards to what will be done across the week, where as the GANTT charts and weekly charts planned in association to this would of alleviated this problem and perhaps allowed me to feel more balanced in regards where experimental and developmental projects should begin and end to allow for all 4 to be explored equally and fully in the allotted time, in order to make informed decisions going forward into semester 2.

Therefore going forward, I have decided to use the GANTT chart as shown below as a reference on a more regular basis in order to plan my weekly and daily lists accordingly and more efficiently for the remainder of the semester.





Parody Law

This is working towards objective 4.C.

Even though I have in no way at all used a copyrighted design throughout the current project I am working on (Poster/Instagram/Tote Bags, etc), I felt as though I should look into Parody Law after this being highlighted whilst researching further into satire. I wanted to look at this to double check that my the work I am producing is fair in regards to the law incase any issues are ever raised as the main concept of this project is mocking Kylie Jenner and her brand, Kylie Cosmetics due to the effects on body image and self-perception caused on those followers and consumers of such a ‘brand conglomerate’ and ‘cultural icon’. The purpose of my work is to inform of this idea, not in anyway detract people from purchasing products, simply to educate and raise awareness of how easily it is for brands to do so. Furthermore, I have also worked on similar pieces of Instagram based work mocking brands such as Benefit, and feel the same in regards to that as noted above.

I feel it is great for creatives that the copyright law exists, and allows for creative license whether be a musician, a painter or a graphic designer for example. Parody has become a much more common way for creatives to work, especially commercially regarding pop-culture topics and trend based items/brands.

Further examples would be altered images of the Mona Lisa for example, or alterations of the Starbucks logo on t-shirts for example.



I feel it is important I know this information incase any issues arise whilst studying or in my future career should I work in this way again, or work with brands/clients whom wish to do so.

What is Parody Law?
“In its most general sense, a fair use is any copying of copyrighted material done for a limited and “transformative” purpose, such as to comment upon, criticize, or parody a copyrighted work. … In other words, fair use is a defense against a claim of copyright infringement.”

“On 1 October 2014, two new “fair dealing” exceptions were introduced, one of which allows use of a copyright work “for the purposes of caricature, parody or pastiche”. It has been suggested that the introduction of a parody exception will bring important cultural as well as economic benefits to the UK.” (MacKintosh, E. 2015)

MacKintosh, E. (2015). The development of the parody exception to the copyright infringement. Available: Last Accessed: 1st November 2016.
Stim, R.. (2010). What is Fair Use?. Available: Last Accessed: 28th November 2016.
TeePublic. (2016). Darth Vader Startars Coffee T-Shirt. Available:–5GSatQ_d–/t_Preview/b_rgb:191919,c_limit,f_jpg,h_630,q_90,w_630/v1450306331/production/designs/375263_1.jpg. Last accessed 1st November 2016.
TeePublic. (2016). Darth Vader Startars Coffee T-Shirt. Available: Last accessed 1st November 2016.