Dissertation: Full Final Draft

“A cross-cultural study designed to develop understanding of the ways in which social media and beauty publications in the fashion industry affect the self-perception of women aged 18 to 24”


Self-perception and body image issues in females aged 18 to 24 in the 21st century, are complex issues stimulated by both the beauty and fashion industries. Why one develops such issues is multifaceted, and often includes a range of technological, social and cultural influences, whilst accounting for the ‘ideals’ portrayed in mass media shaping norms and expectations. In an era where streams of photographs of ‘ideals’ are instantly accessibly, along with photo editing apps and filters alike, magazines are no longer the only outlet for images of unattainable and unmaintainable women to be seen, desired and aspired to.

The ‘ideal’ has been shaped over time with brand standardisation and internationalisation, along with recent advances in technology and modern day blogger culture. Each of these utilise marketing strategies and theoretical approaches in order to teach a fabricated sense of self, in order to conform and feel accepted within a particular society. This ideology is noted, discussed and supported by various theorists and philosophers. In particular; Bem (1972), Foucault (1977), Lacan (1936), Hesse-Biber (1996), Turner and Tajfel (1986) and Shields and Heineken (2002) take focus analysing the ‘Self-Perception theory’, ‘Panopticism’, ‘The Mirror Stage’ theory, the ‘Social Identity’ theory and the ‘Self-Surveying Gaze’ theory.

These theoretical approaches are also underpinned by Rumsey (2012), Wong (2012), Tagg (1988), Rose (2007, 2012), Campbell (1987), Bovone (2012), Bauman (2000, 2004), Stratton (1996), Johnson (2008), Arvidsson (2005) and Klein (2013).

This essay aims to question and understand the theory, context and ideologies behind self-perception and body image on cross-cultural scale using a range of methodologies and research methods embodying pragmatic, interpretivist and critical-design led approaches.

Furthermore, this essay focuses on both the UK and Japan, in an aim to understand how different cultures respond to influences of social media and magazines. This is due to different countries facing a different set of underlying socio-cultural conventions, perspectives and opinions, therefore shaping modern day beauty and fashion industries, ‘ideals’ and perceptions.

Chapter 1 – Context of My Practice

As a graphic designer working within the beauty and fashion industries, on a National and International scale, ethical, social and cross-cultural issues such as, working with photography of objectified and emaciated female models are often encountered. Such issues led me to investigate the ways in which messages being communicated may be perceived and internalised by the viewer, shaping my research question.

The Fashion and Beauty Industries are becoming more digitised through advanced technologies of Social Media and Beauty Applications; for example, filters and facial editing features. This adds a different dimension to the media in comparison to magazines, allowing for the end-user to be in curational control of their appearance and ‘live feed’ opposed to being dictated to by publishing editors. Social Media and Apps alike, allow for a cybernetic approach to communication to be interacted with, editing a personal visual for instance, translating ourselves and pushing this back to an audience with a personal approach to media (McCann, 2009). This is the opposite to the transmission communication model (Shannon and Weaver, 1949) often utilised in mass media, i.e. magazines, whereby, a particular message is sent to a particular audience without being modified, and instead it can be distorted through interpretation, or ‘noise’. Therefore, an interest in investigating how such platforms are affecting the self-perceptions of young females Internationally (18-24) has been developed.

In relation to social media and beauty publications surrounding the fashion industry, there are many theories which have been derived. Each highlights different perspectives that encompass the topic of self-perception, and allow for extreme cross-cultural analysis, in particular focusing on the UK and Japan as major comparatives.

Bem’s (1972) self-perception theory allows for a multitude of theoretical perspectives to be considered in context. In particular, ‘Panopticism’ (Foucault, 1977), ‘The Mirror Stage’ theory (Lacan, 1936, Hesse-Biber, 1996), the ‘Social Identity’ theory (Turner and Tajfel, 1986) and ‘The Self-Surveying Gaze’ theory (Shields and Heineken, 2002) allow for a foundation to be built upon, opening up discussion of different cross-cultural perspectives.

1.1. The Self-Perception Theory and Panopticism

Rumsey (2012) states that “[the] media help us to shape beauty ideals by showing certain body sizes [as] beautiful and desirable”, summarising how both the beauty and fashion industries alike can affect our self-perception due to a pre-determined ‘ideal’ that is embedded in our subconscious. Furthermore, Rumsey insinuates that the media in particular is responsible for choosing who, and what is seen as the ‘ideal’, shaping and creating unattainable and unmaintainable aspirations for women causing body dissatisfaction and poor self-perceptions. Rumsey’s definition allows for a narrow perspective focusing on the majority of the public, disregarding that the media could actually be rewarding for a small minority of people, i.e. models, whom have built careers from maintaining an ‘ideal’ figure.

In regard to this, social media and magazines opens doors for self-perceptions to be distorted, being formed by the views of others, opposed to ourselves. Bem’s (1972) self-perception theory continues to support this perspective in modern day, stating that both our actions and appearances are ‘socially informed’, opposed to being self-led.

“Self-perception theory is counterintuitive … In simple terms, it illustrates that ‘we are what we do.’ According to self-perception theory, we interpret our own actions the way we interpret others’ actions, and our actions are often socially influenced and not produced out of our own free will, as we might expect.” (Self Perception Theory, Online, 2016)

This reinforces that we may change our appearances for positive appraisal, based on the views, or perceptions of others, consciously or unconsciously in a bid to feel accepted within specific social, or digital circles, i.e. Instagram communities.

In context of the beauty and fashion industries, this is further supported by claims from Wong (2012), whom notes that we only present ourselves in a way in which we want to be seen – “self-presentation among people tended to lean towards their desired selves and away from their undesired selves”, hinting at an increasingly self-aware and narcissistic digital culture, particularly in relation to Instagram whereby one has complete control over their projected image – “presenting oneself on the internet sites was aimed to convey desired images to the others”. In continuing support of this, Kraut et al., (1998) noted that a world of self-curated galleries on Instagram for example, allows the above to happen autonomously, naturally and distinctively in a world where “internet usage in particular, will continue to transform social life on a global scale” allowing for perceptions, critiques and judgments to take place.

This is demonstrated with celebrity culture, for example. Figure 1, shows a photograph of Kim Kardashian taken from her Instagram account, whilst Figure 2, shows a comparative, image of Makeup Artist/Instagram Icon, Amreezy, taken from her account – both of which show that they are holding similar poses in similar attire, with similar postures and facial features, echoing mimickery. This example alone represents how social media and replicated images can affect ones self-perception, whereby it is okay to perceive ourselves, or see ourselves in a similar light to others in order to attain positive appraisal and acceptance. The public can use various aspirations, and socio-culturally accepted ‘ideals’ formed around cultural icons to shape our own identities and egos, opposed to forming our own.

Furthermore, the idea of ‘celebrity culture’ as discussed by Rogers (1999) having a negative impact upon ones self-perception, and the self-perception theory (Bem, 1972) are further supported through Foucaults (1977, P.210) panopticism theory, whereby the idea of power constitutes the idea of never being ‘invisible’ to the public eye which can be translated back to modern day cybernetic communication. This introduces the ideology of ‘self surveillance’, relating particularly to modern day social media and status. This is evident with the examples of both Kim Kardashian, and Amreezy (Figure 1 and Figure 2) as discussed above, whereby approval and ‘likes’ via Instagram communities constitutes positive self-perception and “a state of conscious and permanent visibility that assures the automatic functioning of power” (Foucault, 1977, P.200). Utilising power in a modern day, cross-cultural society enables one to easily gain ‘acceptance’ via photography, be it a recognised icon or not – reflected by the ‘blogger boom’ surrounding both the beauty and fashion industries.

Whether photography is shared, or seen via social media or in magazines, this continues to support the panopticism theory, especially in regard to the production of an image and the various technologies and processes behind it. Foucault (1977, P.26) claims that, “[photographs are] rarely formulated in continuous, systematic discourse … often made up of bits and pieces … a disparate set of tools and methods”, highlighting a conscious, yet highly staged process which further relates to modern day photography, (photo shoots and ‘selfies’ for example) which comes with power from either a particular brand, or person. Tagg (1988, P.118) supports this theoretical perspective stating that, “status [within] technology varies with the power relations that invest [in] it”, making a connection to modern day celebrities and bloggers, allowing for viewers to believe that all photography is real and truthful in all aspects, and not set up and digitally manipulated through technological power and skill (Rose, 2007, P.173). Furthermore, Rose (2012, P.121.), states that; “photography is often thought of as picturing reality”, implies that fabricated realities may impact on the self-perception, confidence and self-esteem of the viewer, be it an Instagram photo, or an editorial shoot for Vogue magazine.

Rose’s ideology on visual semiology (2012) further supports the theoretical approach of panopticism (Foucault, 1977 and Tagg, 1988), and Bem’s (1972) self perception theory, claiming that;

“Unlike any other visual technology, there is a sense in which the camera is an instrument that records what was in front of its lens when the shutter snapped; and although photographic images can be framed and filtered and cropped, and can subsequently be manipulated in all sorts of ways and put to all sorts of uses” (P.121).

This further reinforces that visual, photographic references, either in the form of print or digital mediums, can cause negative self perceptions, and cause false perceptions of those around us, perhaps due to the naivety of the viewer. In contrast, it can also be said that there is a sense of pleasure and gratification that is gained through ‘looking’ at what we cannot have, and cannot achieve, allowing one to still feel included and in tune with affluent and inspirational imagery.

1.2. Social Identity Theory

In support of Bem’s (1972) self-perception theory, Tajfel and Turner state that, “individuals strive to achieve or to maintain positive social identity” (1986, P.16), alluding to the idea that we may change our appearance for positive praise and acceptance within our different social circles, opposed to self-gratifying reasoning.

Tajfel and Turner (1986) stated that;

“Part of a person’s concept of self comes from the groups to which that person belongs. An individual does not just have a personal selfhood, but multiple selves and identities associated with their affiliated groups. A person might act differently in varying social contexts according to the groups they belong to, which might include … their family, their country of nationality, and the neighbourhood they live in, among many other possibilities” (P.N/A.)

This ideology can also be applied cross-culturally to that of magazines and social media, along with that of individuals. This reflects the possibilities of changing ones’ social identity intentionally to appeal to a particular social group; digitally or in person. Bauman (2004, P.36) classes this ideology of ‘social group’ as the ‘Universal Elite”, whereby “present-day society holds up to its members is the role of the consumer, and the members of our society are likewise judged by their ability and willingness to play that role” and whether they ‘fit in’ or not.

The Social Identity model (Figure 3) shows how personal identity and a sense of self can be formed through either acceptance or non-acceptance into a chosen social group, with retrospective intergroup comparisons. Once accepted within a particular group, one will be classified as ‘in-group’, allowing for comparative behaviours to arise with those who do not identify with such groups, classified, ‘out-group’. This denotes the concept of ‘us’ and ‘them’ in retrospect, causing competitive behaviours, altered perceptions and self-perceptions in turn. Social comparison can however, cause poor self-perception and negative behaviours via the comparison of ‘in-group’ and ‘out-group’ members; this can also be seen in regard to figures 6 and 7.

In relation to the modern day beauty and fashion industries, Mary F Rogers (1999) notes that ‘cultural icons’, such as celebrities and models, form the standardised ‘in-group’ of today’s societies, whereby followers and admirers form the ‘out-group’. This encourages said ‘out-group’ individuals to feel the need to be constantly striving and working towards such standardisation and acceptance of a particular group or community. In support, Rogers (1999, P.6) states that, “[people have] the desire to avoid punishment and accrue rewards”, whilst Turner and Tajfel (1986, P.N/A.), state evidently that, “social status … is the outcome of intergroup comparison”. This is often seen in digital circles, whereby images are posted on Instagram, in order to gain ‘likes’ and ‘comments’ gaining confirmation of acceptance via intergroup comparisons.

However, on the contrary, Campbell (1987, P.5), argues that in regards to beauty and fashion, “[social] identity in the modern world takes the form of ‘discovering their true identity by a process of monitoring their responses to the various styles that are brought to their attention … as a part of a process of coming to realise ‘who they really are’” (Crane, 2012, P.1) opposed to shaping personal identity through intergroup comparisons. This perspective offers one a positive choice in regard to how one goes about dictating their sense of self hood and identity. In contrast Bovone (2012, P.5) claims that beauty and fashion “[provide] aesthetic choices that enable the consumer either to conform or to rebel” to the pre-described ideals and standards which society sets out for the masses. This argument denotes that an individual seeks to find their ‘social identity’ through external responses to chosen aesthetic choices and the opinions of others, opposed to adhering to intergroup comparisons as noted by Tajfel and Turner (1986).

Bovone’s (2012) theory on social identity rings true in Japanese culture, for example, particularly in relation to sub-cultures of ‘decora fashion’, known to be derived in the district of Harajuku, Tokyo, whereby ‘identity’ is formed through a rebellious nature of conformity. The Japanese proverb ‘the nail that sticks out must get hammered down’ (出る釘は打たれる), is well known in regard to differentiation being met by resistance (Hashi, 2012). Bauman (2000) notes that, “it is such patterns, codes and rules to which one could conform, which one could select as stable orientation points and by which one could subsequently let oneself be guided” showing how a change in attitude could be adhered to, moving on from “universal comparison” and the “blueprints” of the expectations of a particular society.

1.3. The Mirror Stage Theory

Self-perceptions are developed from an early age, allowing for a conscious sense of self-awareness and selfhood to be derived, whilst allowing for change overtime. The Oxford Dictionary, describes ‘selfhood’ as “the quality that constitutes one’s individuality; the state of having an individual identity”.

Lacan’s (1936) mirror stage theory, notes a child at 18 months, first recognises oneself in a mirror and becomes conscious of selfhood, recognising that he or she is an individual and is separate to others; “it begins the process of developing an identity distinct from others and yet, at the same time, dependant on the images of others to determine itself”. This perspective paints a picture that the image of oneself is more appealing as an ‘ideal’ when seen whole, relating to Freudian approaches of self-perception and self-analysis.

Hesse-Biber (1996, P.13) re-enforced the mirror stage theory, noting that a reflection of oneself can affect our thoughts, actions and behaviours, whilst affecting a sense of self-perception. However, Hesse-Biber (1996, P.31) also claims that this is a result of comparing oneself to the societal ideals portrayed in the media such as magazines and social platforms, whereby “the concept of a mirror gives us an analogy for how society fosters women’s obsession [with their] body image”, in turn seeing the mirror as a symbol of commercialisation and standardisation opposed to individualisation as Lacan (1936) discusses.

Freud argues that, “the mirror itself is a ‘double’, where the person is oneself and the image the person sees is another self … since this produces a double image, what is visible may actually be invisible or altered through our own perceptions” (Lind, 2009), whereby we make solitary decisions in regards to our sense of self-hood. This contradicts Tajfel and Turner’s (1986) social identity theory by claiming that there is a constant battle between conscious and unconscious thought in regard to our appearance, opposed to being constructed through intergroup comparison.

Furthermore, Stratton (1996) claimed that, “[with enough work] people can construct the appearance that they want. Such understanding emphasises the visual, pointing towards a world of gazes, mirrors and spectacles where they eye is the central sense and the body is its major focus”.  This is particularly resonant in regard to social media and magazines surrounding the beauty and fashion industries, whereby the camera, or public eye becomes a mirror, allowing for distorted self-perceptions and self-analysis, with one therefore being unable to recognise what is real, or not, adding pressure to look a certain way.

1.4. The Male Gaze and The Self-Surveying Gaze/Gratification Theory

In regard to seeking social acceptance and approval of ones ‘image’, the male gaze theory is prevalent.

Shields and Heinecken (2002) states that this theory “transforms women into objects of the heterosexual man’s eye … advertisements and other images of women are shot in such ways that encourage female audiences to adopt a certain perspective when looking at other women and themselves”, internalizing the male gaze and the pre-set ideals of the media triggering, ‘the self-surveying gaze’, or the gratification theory, which in turn can dampen self-perceptions.

The male gaze theory allows women to be seen as objects, and has been used within beauty and fashion marketing strategies for decades. However, the self-surveying or gratification theory allows women to adopt different perspectives in order to see themselves through the eye of the third person, opposed to how they actually perceive themselves. This then allows for women to judge other women in the same vein – through a male lens. By doing so one is put under continuous pressure, feeling the ‘gaze’ consciously from different angles.

This is reflected in Figure 4 and Figure 5. Figure 4 shows 1950’s Playboy Bunnies in Chicago, whereby they were objects of both male attention and the male gaze, wearing their bunny-suits proudly, in turn becoming the ‘ideal’ and ‘sex symbols’ of the era, whilst figure 5, shows how self-perception can become unrecognisable through the self-surveying gaze. Shields and Heinecken (2002) state that this can be “overwhelming, and in turn, distorted”, whereby, one becomes unable to recognise the ‘ideal’, nor reality, adding additional pressure to look a certain way and conform to a socio-culturally pre-set ‘norm’. In support, Johnson (2008, P.207), pins this on the ideology of a brand marketing strategy noting that; “’product [or brand] ambassadors’ … [are not] aimed at selling anything specific, but instead work to give a brand a certain set of values or a certain emotional association”, in turn aiming to change one’s sense of self through reflected and standardised ideals, advertising, and in addition, both the internal and external gazes.

The self-surveying gaze, or gratification theory, unlike the male gaze theory, does not pin the blame on the media for altering self-perceptions and thoughts. Instead it focuses on how one uses and perceives the media, emphasising the importance of individual choices, and the choices of the brands creating the visual content initially (Raccke, 2008). This is evident with the Playboy brand for example, as noted above, as well as in various Japanese Shisedio advertisements (Figure 6 and 7).

Figures 6 and 7 show how this theory has been used within marketing strategies. Shiseido often used a woman’s gaze in a mirror, hinting at both self-analysis and self-awareness. Rather than being exposed to external gazes, internalised gazes become prevalent and subside at the forefront of ones self-perception. In relation to brand-led advertising, Arvidsson (2005, P.244) states that, “the brand, or ‘brand image’, began to refer instead to the significance that commodities acquired in the minds of consumers”, implying that individuals have a fabricated ‘self hood’, opposed to it being self derived.

Klein (2013) states that this strategy builds on comparison of the self, through recognising “the susceptibilities in [women]” and utilising this within advertising ideologies allowing for the following of an ‘ideal’, whilst Hesse-Biber (2006) notes “girls already vulnerable to self-esteem or body image issues are most negatively impacted” by such methods. By choosing to engage with such comparisons and internalised gazes, body dissatisfaction is more likely to occur. This is evident in modern day with social media and magazines, whereby a camera lens, a selfie or a celebrity become the comparative.

In retrospect, in 2015, ‘& Other Stories’ were the first fashion brand and retailer, to release an advertising campaign challenging the male gaze ideology, utilising a range of transgender models, stylists, makeup artists, hairdressers and photographers. This challenged the ‘norm’ of the fashion industry in a non-conventional way, allowing for diversity and true identity to be considered, opposed to focusing on a male gaze versus female model precedent which has been used in the industry for over a century. This alone suggests that the industry is changing an that perhaps in modern day, there is not only one dominant gaze.

The theoretical approaches discussed allow for a deeper understanding of various ideologies, contemplating how social media and beauty publications can affect ones self-perception and the perceptions of others. In particular, these show how ones identity is fabricated (Arvidsson) via external brand-led influences and technological advances.

Chapter 2 – Method of Practice

This chapter introduces the methodologies and ethical practices used throughout this cross-cultural study, in order to attain a body of information in order to understand the ways in which self-perception and body image of young women, are currently affected through the rise of a digital social media culture and the publishing industries alike.

2.1. Methodology

Two main research philosophies have been utilised throughout various research studies taking a pragmatic and an interpretivist approach, allowing for a large range of data to be collated and analysed. A practical approach of critical design was also carried out, allowing for provocative and satirical work to be produced in order for the recipient to think, question and trigger debate surrounding the research question at hand.

A pragmatic approach enables multiple research methods to be carried out, enabling both quantitative and qualitative findings, understanding that “there are many different ways of interpreting [and undertaking] research [and that], no single point of view can ever give the entire picture” accepting that their may be different viewpoints or realities to consider (Saunders, 2012), whilst an interpretivist approach allows for in-depth investigations to be carried out in order to collect specific pieces of information. An interpretivist approach, appreciates that “different people of different cultural backgrounds, under different circumstances and at different times make different meanings, and so create and experience different social realities” (Saunders, 2012), taking into consideration different viewpoints and perspectives. This research philosophy was particularly important whilst analysing and researching Japanese cultures and ideologies.

Both qualitative and quantitative research methods that have been used for this cross-cultural study, exploring how data has been collected and analysed in relation to both subject matter and theoretical perspectives, in an aim to competently understand the scope of my working research question in context. Easterby-Smith et al (2008) claims that researchers should collect both primary or secondary data in order to build a viable body of research to support methodologies and working research questions.

2.2. Structured and Semi Structured Interviews

A range of qualitative structured and semi-structured interviews have been conducted in an aim to understand different cross-cultural perspectives of how the beauty and fashion industries may affect ones self-perception, whilst further exploring surrounding issues and sub-cultures derived from a modern-day cause for concern. An interpretivist approach has been carried out with interviews in both the UK and in Tokyo, Japan, appreciating and emphasising “the importance of language, culture and history” (Crotty 1998).

Interviews aim to provide a range of in-depth findings (Collis and Hussey, 2003). Semi-structured interviews aimed to provide findings through open questions with participants, whilst structured and formal interviews were carried out to ensure that specific information was collated to support or negate theoretical and cultural cross-perspectives, relative to secondary literary research and further research methods explored to date. Questions and/or audio recordings taken with a dictaphone, can be found in the appendix, along with a list of posed questions and summaries of findings relative to each interview.

Collecting comparative primary research during this study was reliant on accessing and visiting appropriate candidates in both the UK and Tokyo, Japan, using both existing and new, industry contacts and links to secure relevant interviews and meetings in order to collect relevant data.

In total, 8 specific participants were chosen to interview, in order to gain diverse perspectives in relation to the cross-cultural study outlined within my research question. Participants were chosen due to working in the beauty and/or fashion industries, or having an interest in the nature of the posed subject-matter at hand. Some interviewees were unable to attend meetings to carry out the interview face-to-face, and have therefore completed digital interviews instead, as an alternative means of gathering in-depth data. In regard to interviews in Tokyo, Japan, an international research trip was planned and carried out accordingly.

The study adopted the Leeds College of Art Ethics Policy consistently, ensuring fair practice and confidentiality to all participants and their responses. Blumberg, et al (2005) describes ethics as the appropriateness of the researcher’s behaviour in relation to the personal rights of those who become the subject matter of an interview. Due to forward planning, the signing off of questions prior to interviews, and imposing a non-intrusive nature of research, no objections were made by participants in regard to the subject matter or questions at hand. In addition, each participant was asked to read an information sheet disclosing why they were selected, the nature of the interview and how the findings would be used, along with a consent form whereby each could choose whether they want to share their name, remain anonymous or disclose a pseudonym if data was selected to be cited.

A range of themes were chosen to be discussed with different participants, allowing for a range of specific, tailored and cross-cultural perspectives to be considered in context. This study allowed for an in depth understanding and analysis of the different ways in which social media and beauty publications in the fashion industry cross-culturally may affect the self-perception of women aged 18 to 24, whilst linking findings with the literature and theories noted in Chapter 1.

Interview themes included:

  • The Japanese beauty and fashion industries, particularly relating to use of Western models within advertising and the editorial design of Vogue magazines.
  • The Japanese beauty industry in relation to product range and trends.
  • The historical and socio-cultural influences of the Japanese beauty industry and the subsequent ‘ideal’ in comparison to Western beauty and ‘ideals’.
  • Social Media and Blogger (beauty and fashion) culture in both the UK and Japan.
  • Surrounding issues and sub-cultures of beauty in regard to social media use, focusing particularly on Instagram.
  • The use of polices within Fashion brands, such as ASOS, in order to understand how industry influences are approaching positive body-image and self-perception.
  • Modelling on an International and UK scale, and how this may affect ones self-perception and body image when working in the beauty and fashion industries, opposed to a consumer, user or reader perspective.
  • The growing ‘fitness’ and body building culture within Instagram culture in Western society, gaining a different perspective on self-perception and body image in comparison to that of the beauty and fashion industries.

Interview participants included:

(see printed copy)

2.3. Anonymous Participant Questionnaire

For further means of primary research, a questionnaire consisting of both qualitative and quantitative questions was designed in order to collate data regarding how ones self-perception and body image may be affected through the fashion and beauty industries links with social media and magazines. This research method embodied both pragmatic and interpretivist research philosophies. In total, 25 anonymous respondents participated in this study, of which, questions and responses can be found in appendix 1, along with a summary of findings.

The questionnaire was targeted at both males and females between the ages of 18 and 24, in order to gain comparative data in regard to different genders and the effects the media may have on them. By opening up the questionnaire to male participants also, this allowed for a different perspective to be considered in relation to the research topic at hand. By using both a qualitative and quantitative approach for this study, this enabled trends, thought processes, opinions and motivations to be uncovered and analysed in depth.

Collecting primary research during this study was dependant upon sharing the questionnaire with 18 to 24 year olds, using a range of promotional outlets. The questionnaire was shared via social media (Instagram and Facebook) by not only myself, but by a contact in Tokyo, Japan, in order to reach a cross-cultural and international audience of participants relevant to the line of enquiry. Social media platforms were used to access both males and females whom have active online presences, and therefore may be aware of, interested in, or actively involved in the beauty and fashion industries. In addition, the questionnaire was also shared with the BA(Hons) Fashion degree at Leeds College of Art to broaden the mix of respondents and perspectives.

The questionnaire consisted of a broad mix of question types to generate a wide range of responses for analysis. This included; open, closed, multiple choice and scaled questions, which could be analysed and compared with findings from literature, theoretical perspectives and other research methods carried out over the course of the cross-cultural study as discussed in this chapter.

2.4. Visual

In addition, to the pragmatic and interpretivist research philosophies discussed in 2.1., 2.2., and 2.3., a critical design approach to research was undertaken with practical work in Semester 1. This was in order to direct specific research and practical work based on feedback from the study’s target audience.

A range of satirical and theory-based design work was produced and shared on social media, surrounding the modern, digital world of the beauty and fashion industries (see, fig 16). Dunne and Raby (2007), state that “[critical design is] a medium to stimulate discussion and debate amongst designers, industry and the public about the social, cultural and ethical implications of existing and emerging technologies, [trends or products]”. This approach allowed for initial practical work to be designed and shared via Instagram, using hashtags to reach the relevant target audience. Using this research philosophy allowed for a range of design work to be created “[challenging] narrow assumptions, preconceptions and givens” (Dunne and Raby, 2007) of the noted industries.

Feedback given was beneficial for the future direction of aesthetics and covered ‘topics’, due to a highly positive reaction towards Kylie Cosmetics (Kylie Jenner) related posts (Figure 8). However, it was found that when questions were posed, more ‘likes’ were received than answers given, and found that this may not be the best approach to gaining quantifiable data, therefore alternate means of research would also be required, utilising pragmatic and interpretivist philosophies.

Other forms of visual research such as the analysis of both British and Japanese magazines, advertising campaigns and object based research (see chapter 2.5.) dictated further practical work opposed to utilising a critical design approach. A wide range of publications were purchased in both the UK and in Tokyo, Japan, gaining a comparative cross-cultural insight into aesthetics, trends and the use of both Western and Japanese models.

2.5. Object Based Research

A pragmatic approach was undertaken in regard to object based research, appreciating cultural differences between the UK and Japanese beauty industries, focusing in particular on the range of beauty (cosmetics and skincare) products that are available in two contrasting countries. Chatterjee (2007) states that in regard to object based research, “objects are employed in a variety of ways to enhance and disseminate subject specific knowledge, to facilitate the acquisition of practical, [whilst being used] for inspiration.”

Pragmatism “aims to contribute practical solutions that inform future practice” (Saunders, 2012), thereby undertaking this philosophical approach to research enabled for a contextual understanding as to why each culture, are so different and contrasting in the ideologies of women and self-perception. Furthermore, a pragmatic understanding enabled theoretical approaches from literature to be analysed in line with this field of research.

In regard to the research carried out, objects were analysed – packaging design, copywriting, photography, art direction, product use and product promotion – in an aim to understand cross-cultural and socio-cultural differences/perspectives from the view point of both consumers, and brands.

Along with the broad range of visual research collated and discussed in chapter 2.4., object based research dictated the direction of practical work undertaken in semester 2 in regard to subject matter, visual direction and tone.

The research methods discussed have enabled for research findings to be analysed and critiqued alike, on both a National and International scale, in order to determine the affects of social media and magazines upon ones self-perception and body image.

Chapter 3 – Research Findings

3.1. Fashion Magazines, Advertisements and Beauty Products

Research states that “fashion magazines are considered a main source of information regarding the attractive ideal” (Warchocki, 2007), in regard to body image and beauty trends, posing as a sourcebook of unattainable, nor maintainable physiques and ‘looks’. This is due to an influx of advertisements and product endorsements, by “presenting [such looks and products] in a way that evokes consumers to buy them” (Gonzalez, 2012). On a consumer level this enforces the ideology that with such products, garments or diets, one may also look this way and achieve such image in return, therefore affecting ones self perceptiom.

Through this research study, it has become apparent that Western and Japanese socio-cultural ideals and aspirations are different. The West appear to have an emphasis on a “pursuit to perfection” (Hollowood, 2017, appendix 7) by replicating celebrity, icons, or model looks, whilst Japan maintains a focus on Western culture and socio-cultural traditions. Japanese women strive to be ‘white’ in order to negate from a “us and them” dichotomy (Ashikari, 2005, P.73). The dichotomy spoke of is regarding that of class and social status; those whom worked outside gained a tan, and were therefore deemed to be ‘poor’. Whilst those who worked inside, kept their light skin, exuding inturn a more affluent status. This correlates with Tajfel and Turner’s (1986) social identity, whereby in-group and out-group comparisons are prevalent, contrasting with how Western cultures implies this theory through a more digitally focused and icon led trend.

Wagatsuma (1967, P.407) argues that “white/beautiful versus black/ugly” originates from a “preference of whiteness [being] rooted in Japanese people’s own history” combined with a huge Westernised consumer culture (Ashikari, 2005). Historically, social status and class hierarchies deemed one to be rich or poor, white or black, depending on their occupation. Manual labourers worked outside, gaining a tan, whilst those who worked inside, preserved their fair skin (Takahashi, 2017, appendix 8). It is therefore, often seen in modern day Japanese culture, that Western models will feature in highbrow magazines such as Vogue Japan and Harper’s Bazaar Japan, mimicking this socio-cultural ideal. Kyoko Muramatsu (2017, appendix 6) noted during interview that if not, “Western-looking Japanese models will be used” for advertising campaigns, product endorsements and editorials, giving the Japanese a ‘symbol’ of aspiration and affluence. When questioned on the use of Western models throughout Vogue Japan magazine, Muramatsu claims that like many couture and high-end brands such as Chanel, Vogue must maintain a sign of internationalisation, by using Western icons and celebrities, enabling an International readership. Since Vogue Japan was dervied in 1999, only 9 Japanese models have graced the cover (Wiki, 2017). The first issue (fig. 9) boasts a noteable cover, featuring Kate Moss and Miki, exploring cultural confulence of both Eastern and Western cultures and their icons, representing an International publication, whilst hinting at the Japanese ideal of fair skin through the use of Moss as a symbol. National and Local Japanese beauty and Fashion magazines such as Ginza (fig. 10) however, paint a different picture of ideals in Japan, and represent purely Japanese women. Vogue Japan (Muramatsu) claim that by introducing International ‘cultural icons’ (Rogers, 1999), this allows for brand distinction and for magazines to stand out on the shelves. This alone showcases how different perspectives may impact upon ones self-perception and ‘ideal’ look, purely by which magazine they choose to read.

Cash et al (1988), claims that “applying facial cosmetics affects women’s self-image positively” in regard to confidence, self-perception and self-esteem; a trait often seen in Western culture and daily lives. Japanese beauty, however – from visual, object-based and literary research – appears to have a focus on youthful, natural skin, even with makeup on (Takahashi, 2017, appendix 9), opposed to being focused on heavy makeup trends that are often seen in the West. In support, a study carried out by Shiseido in 2016 found that, “attractiveness [of Japanese women] was rated the highest for light makeup faces” (Tagal et al, 2016), opposed to “heavy makeup faces”. This is reflected through the range of beauty products available in Japan, most of which embody two main end-results; skin-lightening, and anti-aging. Kikuchi et al (2015), states that, “aging has a negative effect on the skin that is important for aesthetic evaluation of the face … revealing that aging increases colour heterogenity”, therefore a wide range of beauty products are available to counteract this natural change, whilst also conforming with the ‘ideal’ look of porcelian white, Western skin. This ‘porcelian’ skin, as a counter argument also relates back to Japanese history and socio-cultural traditions of the Geisha.

The range of beauty-led products in Japan reinforces this through the use of copywriting, model selection and end results. Many anti-aging products seen in Japan aim to give one “babyish” skin (fig 11 and fig 14), hinting at youthfulness in the most extreme manner, using photos of babies to endorse product traits. This shows an extreme cultural obsession with youthfullness, whereby Japanese child pornography was only made illegal and punishable in 2014 (Umeda, 2014). Many cosmetic products on the market in Japan are promoted through the use of extemely fair skinned Japanese models with blonde hair and blue eyes, (fig 12) being featured on POS (point of sale); promoting and embodying the well known Western ‘ideal’ and stereotype.

It is evident that even though the Japanese ‘ideal’ stems back to a historical, socio-cultural background, there is still an influx of Westernised consumer culture which influences the self-perceptions of many, in order to strive to achieve a desired look which is not natural for ones race or ethnicity. This is further promoted through the use of cosmetic surgery adverts that are openly promoted in Japan, whereby white Western models with blonde hair and blue eyes are featured showcasing how one could look with ‘corrective’ surgery (fig 13). This in turn can dampen self perceptions and the perceptions of Japanese women along with their natural sense of self hood.

3.2. Social Media and Blogger Culture

In regards to how young females (aged 18 to 24) are both represented and perceived through social media and magazines is changing, particularly in relation to Western culture. The first fashion blog launched online in 2003 (Gibson, 2012, P.135) and over the past 14 years, the blogging world surrounding the beauty and fashion industries has taken off, with a National Blogger Survey (2016) was conducted, working with over 534 UK bloggers, in order to explore this new culture, purpose and reception in detail (Vuelio, 2016, p.17). In response to the rise of bloggers, and an increasing obsession with ‘cultural icons’ (Rogers, 1999), it is noted that 77% of bloggers are female, and 27% of those, run fashion and maintain beauty-led blogs, whilst 11% are aimed at parenting/family. In contrast, male led blogs are primarily made up of food (11%), travel (10%) and technology/gaming (10%) categories (Vuelio, 2016, P. 3, 5), showcasing a sterotypical gender divide and a possible distortion of the male gaze.

The increase in blogger culture, particularly in relation to social media platforms, Instagram and YouTube, has allowed for many to reach ‘celebrity’ status themselves; and in return the media has “adapted to [this] and reflecting the world of celebrity dominance” (Gibson, 2012, P.126), giving everyday individuals the freedom to reach an elevated social status, an increased sense of self-confidence and improved self-perception, through the acceptance of social and intergroup comparison (Tajfel and Turner, 1986).

Berger 1972, Mulvey 1975 and Doane 1982 state the following, showcasing a mass media shift to cybernetic communication methods, which is resonant to modern day social media outlets;

“In an era of endlessly circulating images of young women, largely presented directly to and looked at by other young women, the traditional theoretical arguments of the ‘the gaze’ are no longer relevant; they depend upon the presented dominance of the male gaze behind a camera”.

This suggests that the one in charge of critique and judgement has changed to become broader; “Mulvey’s original argument that men and women are looked at – while battered by barrage of critique … still stands, albeit with a few bullet holes through it, in the world of fashion [and beauty]” (Edwards, 2010, P.156). In 2017, Edwards’ notion rings in tune with modern era blogger culture, whereby bloggers and other users within communities and social media circles become the “bullet holes” and gaze which affect ones sense of self perception and self hood negatively.

Exploring the impacts of those who post photos on Instagram from a reversed perspective, Samantha Ravndahl (2016), a Canadian beauty blogger/vlogger stated that this particular career choice has caused “cheapened experiences” in the sense of constantly needing to be “photo ready”, being fed by competitive behaviours between social groups on Instagram and YouTube, in order to find social identity and confidence, surrounding self-perception. Ravndahl (2016) claims that blogger culture, was initially a positive experience, whereby ‘blogging’ originally had an emphasis on skillset within makeup artistry, sharing it with others, opposed to a present day ideology of being classed as an ‘influencer’; “as an influencer, you are paid to be beautiful and look a certain way”. It appears that ‘blogger culture’ in Western society has become about who’s the most glamorous, or who has the most followers and has since taken away the craft of skillset, posing as a self-perception game. As much as this digital culture can affect followers, it can also be damaging to the blogger, due to the pressures of looking their best at all times as they do online, in ‘real life’.

From an alternate perspective, UK based model, Tam Dexter (appendix?) stated that in regard to the impact this ‘blogger culture’ may have on girls is dangerous;

“Makeup is a huge part (of the problem), sometimes I look at myself and I don’t even look like me in the mirror … so young girls wanting to look like someone because they contour and then wanting to look like the model/blogger [is] a massive self-perception issue”

In the anonymous questionnaire carried out (appendix 1), 11 of 25 participants stated that they watch online beauty tutorials, whilst 11 of 25 also claimed that they do not read or buy magazines, highlighting a split media consumption. This shows a prominently rising digital culture through ease of accessibility. One participant stated that, “bloggers use [Instagram] as a platform to sell themselves, and I look at these amazing looking people and feel so self conscious that I don’t look like them”, whilst an anonymous male recipient raised awareness of the technological input sharpening and changing images of ‘ideals’, further altering self-perceptions; “social media presents and represents an impossible ideal look, the average person cannot achieve this. If only Instagram made real life filters… you can’t edit real life”. Whilst introducing the alternate perspective of how blogger culture is also appealing to male audiences, this itself relates back to perspectives of Foucault’s (1977) panopticism theory, whereby one is under a constant surveillance of others, and Rose’s (2012) ideology that what is photographed is perceived as ‘real’, rather than being an artificially constructed image for a specific, targetted audience.

Bem’s (1972) self-perception theory and Shields and Heinecken’s (2002) self-surveying gaze theory is resonant, in relation to judging our self-perception based on third-party views and ‘blogger culture’. This relates to further notions noted by Gibson (2012) whereby theories are intertwined in regards to digital culture, having an impact upon viewers and/or followers. Gibson (2012) claims that instant access to the internet and social media allows for one to be apart of a community, opposed to only ‘viewing it’, as in magazines (Gibson, 2012, P.135). This relates back to Bauman’s (2004, P.36) ‘Universal Elite’ ideology, highlighting the function and power of social media; moving from a “consumer society” to a “producer society”.

Be it in magazines, social media or product-led endorsements, influencers and bloggers are becoming major tools for successful marketing strategies in the West. MAC Cosmetics (2017) have launched an international ‘influencer’ campaign, whereby 10 now ‘famous’ bloggers from different countries have designed a lipstick each, embodying their personality and online presence. Whilst, furthermore, Maybelline (2017), have launched their first collaboration with beauty influencer Shayla Mitchell, whilst also including a male influencer, Manny Gutierrez, for the first time in history. This showcases how influencers have an impact on the direction of brands, trends and outlooks of the beauty industry. Even though proving a positive and beneficial strategy in the West, Japanese culture is still opposed to ‘blogger culture’ and the use of influencers, and holds on to the use of celebrity endorsements instead. Takahashi (2017, appendix 9) claims that, such strategies are not taken seriously in Japan, due to ‘blogger culture’ not yet being recognised as a validated marketing tool, with brands not feeling that they their opinions are trusted or viable unlike that of internationally recognised celebrities. Takahashi, a beauty blogger, runs the online blog and Instagram account titled ‘Nic in Tokyo’ (@nicintokyo), and admits that due to working for a Japanese cosmetics firm, her professional blogging practice has to remain undisclosed. This is not due a conflict of interests or her line of work, but due to the withstanding opinions of Japanese counterparts of large cosmetics companies as noted above. Therefore, no images of her face as shown on her digital channels, only close up photos of eyes, lips or beauty products themselves. This is relevant to social identity in Japan, whereby unconformity is frowned upon in a standardised culture (Hashi, 2012), whereby there are too many societal rules and conventions to be oneself (Takahashi, 2017); a major contrast to that of Western socio-cultural norms, where individual identities are praised and looked upon fondly.

3.3. An Alternate Perspective: The Fitness Industry

Social media in Western culture, not only has an impact on the beauty and fashion industries in relation to self perception; it also has proven recently to have a big impact on the fitness industry, particularly that of gym goers and body builders.

Lowen (1997, P.25), describes narcissism as “an investment in one’s image as opposed to ones self … their activities are directed toward the enhancement of their image”, which can directly relate to that of vanity, and beauty bloggers seen on Instagram, whilst also in relation to fitness and body building. Virgin Active (2017), support this claim, stating that, “[women] under 25 claimed that ‘looking good’ was the main reason that they worked out”, showing that activities are self-led and dictated for self gratification (Shields and Heinecken, 2002) reasons, opposed to health. It can also be said that Virgin Active could have a biased and consumer-led view, promoting their gyms and fitness classes knowingly in such ways to reach particular demographics and trend led ‘needs’.

This perspective shows a different insight into how digital platforms such as Instagram can alter ones self-perception, positively or negatively. Twenge and Campbell (2009, P.5) pins blame on narcissistic traits catapulted through increased internet use, stating “the internet allows people to present an inflated and self-focused view of themselves to the world, and encourages them to spend hours each day contemplating their images”, echoing that of the self surveying gaze as noted by Shields and Heinecken (2002), whereby a lens or photograph becomes the comparative, or competition.

In the anonymous questionnaire (appendix 1), 15 of 25 participants stated that they are active gym members, with 15 of 25 participants also claiming that social media has impacted upon their self-perception and body image. One participant stated that;

“It has affected me by feeling that I have to have a small body and a toned body in order to look great, I’m naturally a curvier female and when I see my waist not as small or my legs not as thin, it makes me feel like I really need to concentrate on improving my body”.

Whilst another participant claimed;

“There are a lot of memes and videos about certain girls that [bring] down other people. For example, I am a petite fit person, but there are a lot of posts saying that’s not cute and they talk about thick girls with big butts. I love my body, and have kind of a Victoria Secret body, but I did get a little upset seeing those things. Everyone should just be happy with who they are and not put others down.”

In support, Hesse-Biber (2006, P.217) notes that those already vulnerable to self-esteem or body image issues are most impacted by social media and intergroup comparison in a negative manner, supporting theoretical perspectives on the ideology of ‘the gaze’; internal or external (Lacan, 1936, Hesse-Biber, 1996, Shields and Heineken, 2002) and the social identity theory (Tajfel and Turner, 1986). However, in contrast, during interview, Brittany Rhodes (appendix 8), Miss Nabba UK, a professional and competitive body builder, expressed the following, encompassing how a negative self-perception in relation to social media, actually spurred a positive change, and therefore positive body image and self-perception as a result;

“I started training after actually seeing a few ‘fitspo’ accounts on Instagram and it really inspired me to want to be happy with my body and confident and comfortable in my own skin! I was sick of wanting to look like these fitness girls and decided I could achieve whatever I wanted to if I put my mind to it. That’s where it began and I’ve never looked back“.

It is important to remember that, different gazes and social intergroup comparison can affect self perception in a negative manner. When considering this in relation to the body building industry, Rhodes (2017) also stated that, “I do often see girls in the gym in full hair and make up, and I think social media has a lot to do with it”, showcasing how even though fitness may not be ‘glamourous’, self-consciousness and ideals seen on digital platforms such as Instagram, encompass a sense of self-gratification (Shields and Heineken, 2002) bringing an element of beauty and fashion into a completely different field.

3.4. Policies

With social media and magazines consciously or unconsciously affecting self perception and the perceptions of others alike, various policies and guidelines have been set by various organisations, charities and establishments, that encourage fair practice and social responsibility surrounding body image, model welfare and mental health within the media. Such policies and guidelines have been put in place in order to promote a approach to positive body image within the beauty and fashion industries predominantly.

B-EAT (UK) and the Model Alliance (US) for example, can support, advise, promote and encourage fair and ethical practice in the media however there is not, a binding set of guidelines that enforces all retailers, magazines and brands to follow in order to proactively promote positive body image. This allows for different ‘ideals’ to be portrayed by the media, causing mixed messages and perceptions for the viewer. In addition, this gives the viewer a choice; which in a world where magazines and social media strive for standardisation, can be a positive influence on many in ensuring that you can be indivdual and yourself; without the need to change your identity to be accepted (Crane, 2012).

B-EAT (2011) express in their ‘Media Guidelines’, that the media influences slim figures and ideals, and potentially can trigger eating disorders as a result with 1.6m suffers in the UK alone, whilst in Japan, Hotta et al (2015) states that in Japan, figures have reached levels that are comparable to those in Western societies;

“Media reflects and amplifies that social and cultural environment – and it is one in which body image, perfectionism and control over appetite are highly prized. The growth of a celebrity culture where (mostly) young women are either idolised for their perfect bodies or else criticised for their physical failings creates a powerful influence that is unhealthy for many and toxic for a vulnerable few” (B-EAT, 2011).

ASOS and Vogue, however, have released initiatives that support the promotion of positive body image in the fashion industries. The Social Responsibility team at ASOS founded the ‘Model Welfare Policy’, therefore being the only fashion retailer and brand that have enforced guidelines ensuring that models have a healthy BMI, and no mental health issues prior to modelling for the company. This is to not only to promote a positive body image, but to also protect the wellbeing of the models working in industry themselves. In addition, the policy denotes complying model agencies are only used and widely encourages a range of different approaches is taken in order to secure a positive message is delivered to a wide range of consumers; this consists of garment ranges, print and digital outlets; including social media. Robert Crest (2017, appendix 2) at ASOS explains;

“We have a responsibility to ensure any imagery posted on social media is positive and this is monitored and addressed constantly. We use Social media as a resource to gain an understanding of what our customer needs … We have strict rules about what we can post and are always addressing how things may be perceived before being posted. I hope ASOS is perceived to be quite aspirational in terms of body image and dressing any body shape. We have 4 Womenswear specialist ‘Own Brand’ departments – Curve, Tall, Petites and Maternity, and sell Branded Specialist brands too. We strive to be the top of our game, and hope that all the work done within head office is evident on site through our product and social media outlets. We don’t use advertising (aside from our own customer magazine), we live off word of mouth and the reputation this spreads; the feedback we have had from questionnaires and focus groups have been very positive.”

Vogue on the other hand, the epicentre of the beauty and fashion industry have created ‘The Health Initiative’; “a pact between the 19 international editors of Vogue to encourage a healthier approach to body image within the industry” (Milligan, 2012). Vogue (2012) stated that, “[we] work with models who, in our view, are healthy and help to promote a healthy body image” and who can “be ambassadors for the message of healthy body image”. In support, Kyoko Muramatsu (appendix 6), Beauty Director at Vogue Japan expressed during interview that the word “diet” is not used throughout the magazine, “the term ‘healthy’ is used instead”. On the contrary, it may be perceived that this still could encourage negative self perception, deeming only the slim, model figures shown are ‘healthy’, opposed to ‘average’ or plus size women, for example.

In regard to future direction of positive body image and policies on a cross-cultural scale, Crest (appendix 2) claims that the industry is slowly changing in attitude, projecting a positive example of body image to a range of audiences and consumers. Furthermore, this builds on the & Other Stories (2015), fig.15) campaign in regard to diversity and viewpoint;

“I think there should be a level of general awareness and boundaries which industries should adhere to, but appreciate [that] to make it national or international would require a big body of work. I think boundaries are now blurring and with recent catwalk shows [many are] using plus size, older generations and androgynous models – the tide is turning and positive body image awareness is now out there, [and is] not to be ignored but celebrated”.

It is apparent that even though some fashion brands such as ASOS and & Other Stories are challenging the ‘ideals’ put out via social media and magazines, there is still a lot of work to be done in regard to celebrating diversity, identity and self-hood.


It was found that self-perception and body image issues within 18 to 24 year olds, in both the UK and in Japan are derived from a range of social, cultural, historical and trend led influences coming through modern social media outlets, and magazines. In addition, blogger culture and consumer culture allow for a sense of fabricated identities and perspectives to be portrayed, aspired to and idolised.

The information and theory presented in chapter 1, showcases two main ideologies and approaches underpinning why one strives to change and/or maintain a sense of self in order to be accepted as a result of external influences of the beauty and fashion industries. Rumsey (2012), and Bem (1972) in particular denote that the media helps shapes modern ‘ideals’ and in turn can affect ones sense of self hood through self-curated, cybernetic galleries on social media, allowing one to shape their own identity and perceived image (Wong, 2012, Stratton, 1996 and Kraut et al., 1998). This is supported further via Foucault (1977), Lacan, Rose (2007, 2012) and Tagg (1988), whom note that a sense of surveillance is more prominent than ever due to the accessibility and the editing of photographs, distorting what is ‘real’ and ‘not real’, relating back also to that of magazines. In contrast, theoretical approaches noted by Campbell (1987) and Bovone (2012) echo a tutored sense of self, providing a choice for one in regard to identity and belonging in regard to a particular social group and acceptance (Tajfel and Turner, 1986). It is found that this approach is more so the case in Japanese culture, than in Western culture.

Chapter 2 discussed a range of pragmatic, interpretivist and critical-design led research methodologies and methods. This allowed for Chapter 3 to find that in Western culture, self-perception issues are derived from an influx of blogger culture, celebrity icons and consumer led culture (Gonzalez, 2012), whilst in Japan, issues are mainly derived from constrictions and conformity of socio-cultural and historical traits (Hashi, 2012), combined with Western brand standardisation and internationalisation (Muramatsu, appendix 6). Furthermore, this chapter finds that self-perception and body image issues also come into play with males and within the fitness industry (Virgin Active, 2017 and Rhodes, appendix 8), stemming back to a modern day social media obsession (appendix 1), beauty apps and photo filters. It is also apparent that policies set in place such as that of B-EAT and ASOS, can strive to have a positive impact however due to overwhelming mixed messages of cross-cultural ‘ideals’, it is impossible to standardise or enforce good practice within the beauty and fashion industries internationally.

It appears that in the 21st century, women and men alike, are heavily judged on their appearance whether in person, in social media or in magazines, and feel the need to comply with trends, influencer, blogger and cultural icons alike in order to feel socially accepted. Charles and Kerr (1986, P.49) states that one is “constantly trying to [change their body] so that it will conform to the ideal conception [of beauty] which dominates our culture”, concluding and encompassing the issues that 18 to 24 year olds are surrounded with today.


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